lundi 22 septembre 2014

Le Kurdistan irakien serait mêlé à la contrebande de pétrole organisée par l'Etat islamique

"Who Buys Isis Oil?

The issue of who buys the stolen oil is very contentious: the opposition blames government, and vice versa. It appears ISIS sells through a mafia of middlemen who truck it to refineries in Iraqi Kurdistan, Turkey and Iran. A greater amount of the crude from Iraq goes through brokers than in Syria. ISIS also uses makeshift refineries, which allows them to sell the products more easily and locally."

Source : http://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/15203

"And despite the heavy fighting between Islamic State and Kurdish forces called peshmerga, the U.S. government suspects Kurdish involvement in the trade, said a U.S. intelligence official who agreed to speak only on background.

"The area in Iraq where ISIL is operating is associated with long-standing oil smuggling networks which have traditionally had a Kurdish component," the official said, using the abbreviation for the government's preferred name for the group - Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant. "So, nobody should be surprised if there were Kurds involved in bringing ISIL-controlled oil to market."

These small cash deals swapped across the hands of multiple buyers along routes long used for black market trades are difficult to monitor.

"Even if you were able to flesh out the networks and figure them out, how would you then disrupt it?" said Matthew M. Reed, vice president of Foreign Reports, a Washington-based consulting firm that analyzes Middle East oil markets."

Source : http://www.houstonchronicle.com/business/energy/article/Terror-group-may-make-3-million-a-day-selling-oil-5768002.php

"Black market oil is often refined at plants in Iraqi Kurdistan that are partly the byproduct of the tensions between Kurdish leaders and Baghdad. In recent years the Kurdistan Regional Government looked the other way as homegrown refineries popped up to supply the local market after Baghdad banned the export of petroleum products without its consent.

This means that the Kurds are potentially helping put money in the coffers of the jihadi group that its own peshmerga forces are fighting. “It’s now possible that Isis could be selling crude [via middlemen] to these knock-off refineries,” says Bilal Wahab, an energy expert at the American University of Sulaymaniyah. “The KRG is unwilling to shut them down because it would have to raise the price of gasoline. It can’t raise the price of gasoline because it can’t pay salaries, and it can’t pay salaries because the central government hasn’t given the KRG its budget in eight months. Yes, it’s illegal. Yes, it’s bad. But it is what greases the wheels of the economy.”"

Source : http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/34e874ac-3dad-11e4-b782-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3E2Kpg2HB

"Les pays européens ont-ils profité de ce trafic?

Toujours selon l'ambassadrice de l'Union européenne en Irak, Jana Hybaskova, plusieurs pays européens se seraient directement fournis auprès de l'Etat islamique en hydrocarbures, à prix cassés. Pour autant, elle ne souhaite pas divulguer clairement les pays de l'Union européenne visés par cette accusation. Cette contrebande transiterait par le biais de la Jordanie, le Kurdistan, la Turquie ou encore l'Iran"

Source : http://www.itele.fr/monde/video/des-pays-europeens-ont-ils-achete-du-petrole-a-letat-islamique-94672

"Comment l'EI parvient-il ensuite à revendre cet or noir ? En cassant les prix. " D'après ce qu'on sait, ils vendent au tiers du prix du marché", précise encore Pierre Terzian. En utilisant les vieilles méthodes irakiennes de l'époque de Saddam Hussein lorsque le pays était sous embargo.
Des centaines de camions citernes transitent ainsi vers le Kurdistan irakien et même vers la Turquie ou le pétrole brut est mélangé au pétrole d'autres provenances.

Mais depuis une semaine, les choses ont changé. La Turquie a durci sa position. La police turque a ainsi saisi du diesel de contrebande dans une quarantaine de stations-service du pays. De plus, les frappes américaines rendent désormais plus difficile l'exploitation de cet or noir. Le pompage dans les six champs pétroliers contrôlés par l'EI à Deir Ezzor a ainsi  été stoppé par peur des frappes américaines, selon des militants."

Source : http://lci.tf1.fr/monde/moyen-orient/etat-islamique-le-petrole-lui-rapporterait-3-millions-de-dollars-8491785.html

Voir également : Construction d'un mur à la frontière turco-syrienne, pour empêcher les intrusions et la contrebande

EIIL : le double jeu des peshmerga de Barzani

Les Kurdes et l'EIIL

Wassim Nasr : "on trouve même des Kurdes, notamment dans la ville d’Halabja, qui rejoignent les rangs des djihadistes de l’Etat islamique"